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Last updated 12 August 2016

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Friends of Latchmore

Save Raincliffe Woods

Champions for British Wildlife

Wildlife and Countryside - UK

Wildlife and Countryside - Europe

Marine Protection

Wilderness, National Parks, Forests - North America

Australasia and southern hemisphere

World-wide wildlife

Permaculture and related topics


Champions for British Wildlife

While there are many national advocacy organisations for British wildlife, some of the best thinking and practice can be found on the websites of individuals and self-associating groups (sometimes local groups of national organisations) who document and support the wildness of an extraordinary place. Sometimes, they are set up to counter an existing group or official organisation that no longer has the best interest at heart for the location because they condone inappropriate or high-handed management. Others just have a wholehearted and positive commitment to wild nature and self-willed land.

Please note - many of the woodland and forest groups are faced with the transfer of England's Public Forest Estate into what may be an unaccountable trust.

Against corvid traps - exposing shooting’s vile underbelly

Exposes the cruelty of traps for crows (Corvids), and the way they are blatantly misused to catch as well birds of prey. Astonishingly, these wood framed cage traps are not illegal, and are used under general licence by gamekeepers to trap magpies, crows, jays, jackdaws and rooks, often using a live bird as a decoy or lure. As a video on the website shows, their likely fate then is to be clubbed to death. Larsen traps, a type of decoy trap introduced from Denmark by the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust in 1988, are now illegal in Denmark as they are viewed as cruel. A report downloadable from the website lists sightings of the contents of these traps from the public in Scotland over the period 1998-2004. It shows the toll taken on buzzards and kestrels, as well as owls.

Ashdown Forest Action Group

The Ashdown Forest Action Group was formed to prevent further enclosure of the commons of Ashdown Forest. The group object to the use of sheep for conservation grazing on the commons because they degrade the landscape, and their use often gives rise to fencing of commons that radically alters the nature of the commons and is antithetical to the 1974 Act that governs the conservation of Ashdown Forest. The aim of the group is to ensure that a public inquiry is held into the actions of the Board of Conservators, the operation of the Ashdown Forest Trust 1988, and that the 1974 Act is reformed. The website gives a link to their petition, and contains documentation of the harm being done to the Forest by dogmatic nature conservation.

Ban snaring - the National Anti Snaring Campaign

An animal welfare organisation that campaigns against the use of snares and traps in the UK, founded following outrage at badger snaring incidents on the Goodwood Estate in West Sussex during the early 90s. Snares are set largely by gamekeepers on shooting estates and grouse moors to trap foxes, with around 36,000 foxes snared each year. Almost 70 per cent of animals caught in snares are not the intended targets as badgers, deer, cats, dogs, rabbits and otters all get snared and can suffer appalling injuries. The UK is one of only five European members that still allow animal snares to be used, but the others have far stricter snare rules. A range of horrific case studies, examples of different snare types and the law relating to their use.

Blacka Moor – an independent view

The Blacka Blogger documents the wild values of the Blacka Moor landscape at the edge of the Peak District near Sheffield, and how it is being degraded through the management by a wildlife trust. Excellent photographs and nature notes, as well as commentary on the inanity of contemporary industrialised nature conservation.

Borders Forest Trust

A charity based in Jedburgh, whose vision for the South of Scotland is a place where a rich network of native woodlands and wild places flourish, cared for by local communities. Established in 1996 to develop and manage habitat restoration and community woodland projects and to reverse the decline of woodlands and wild places. Wide range of projects, including Carrifran Wildwood and Tweed Rivers Heritage.

Cardigan Bay Save Our Sea (SOS) Campaign

Cardigan Bay SOS is a campaign group that responds to threats to the environment of Cardigan Bay and in particular potential damage to wildlife in the area, and the knock-on effect to sustainable tourism, an important feature of the local economy. The group is particularly concerned to protect the integrity of the marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) in Cardigan Bay, and the designated species that these areas are intended to protect. They have been campaigning against the plan to grant licences to oil companies to drill for oil in SACs in Cardigan Bay. A concern is that due to the currents and the shallow depth of water of Cardigan Bay (nowhere deeper than 70 feet) any oil spill or chemical contamination will be washed onto beaches as far north as Shell Island. In addition, their consultation response to licensing highlighted the acoustic impacts of oil exploration on the development of bottle nose, and the interference with seal populations. No licenses were issued in the current round due to the concerns that there was  inadequate of the potential impact on dolphins in the bay. SOS have initiated local discussions on setting up cardigan bay as a National Marine Park.

No longer available - see Friends of Cardigan Bay

Carrifran Wildwood

A project to re-wood a 1600-acre valley in the hills between Moffat and Peebles in the Borders of Scotland. The valley is a typical, denuded farm landscape that a locally formed trust has purchased. Since 2000, the trust has set out to systematically restore woodland and heathland habitat. Well documented as an example of fund raising, site appraisal and management plan. Tree planting was scheduled up to 2007 after which the trust intend to let nature take over most of the management of the valley.

Friends of Blacka Moor

An informal grouping of people with a common interest in Blacka Moor, who regularly walk the moor in all seasons and want to maintain its unique appeal. They first came together when they saw that the site was likely to be compromised as a result of Sheffield City Council leasing the land to Sheffield Wildlife Trust as a nature reserve. History of events leading up to the decision to lease the site to SWT, and lays out their objections to the management now being imposed.

Friends of Cardigan Bay

A voluntary organisation, founded in 1989, that is committed to caring for Cardigan Bay, its inhabitants and the marine environment. Current emphasis is on research and monitoring of the rich and diverse flora and fauna of the Bay around Aberystwyth. Excellent  photo-galleries of marine wildlife seen in the bay, such as porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, grey seals and coastal birds. Fascinating description of the three Sarnau, shallow sub-tidal reefs in the bay and their associated wildlife, plus results of their surveys. Regular surveys of dolphin populations in the bay. One of the Friends' concerns is for greater control of scallop dredging in the bay. The photo-gallery taken while diving on Sarn Cynfelin (click on Diving) shows the colourful and remarkable underwater sealife that can be totally destroyed by this dredging. A potent argument for marine reserves being established in the bay. (See also Save Our Sea (SOS) Campaign)

Friends of Chopwell Wood

Mixed conifer/broadleafed woodland PAWS of almost 1,000 acres, owned by the Forestry Commission, and on the northern slopes of the Derwent Valley, near Gateshead. The Friends formed as a voluntary community group in November 1991, over concern at small public woodland areas being sold off by government. Some were privatised or clear-felled. The Friends supported "Woodland Park" status to give long-term protection to the wood, which was achieved in  l993. Now a local charity, they raise funds for conservation and restoration, organise projects, carry out Recreational/Educational events, and contribute to the future of the Wood through the Forest Design Plan. Under threat from sell off of England’s Public Forest Estate.

Friends of Latchmore

The Friends of Latchmore is an action group formed to protect the delightful environment of the Latchmore Brook – a biodiverse valley on the northwest side of the New Forest – in the light of proposed and potentially very damaging “restoration” works by the Forestry Commission. The Forestry Commission claim that it is a “deep and eroding drain”, and that it is “disconnected from its flood plain”. In fact it overtops its banks frequently, as photos on this site demonstrate. After over a year of campaigning and legal challenges by solicitors acting for FoL, the Forestry Commission finally admitted that Planning Permission was required, and in 2014 agreed that an Environmental Impact Assessement would be carried out. However, the scope and quality of this assessment is still uncertain. This site describes the concerns of the Friends of Latchmore, and gives evidence of the damage caused by similar work around the New Forest.

Friends of Loxley and Wadsley Commons

The Friends came together to document their protest at the high-handed management of this publicly owned space by Sheffield Council's Ranger Service. Explains the history of the wooded commons, the background to the disputed management plans, the lack of consultation involved, and the damage that is being done to a very special place in a futile pursuit of restoring heathland.

Green Corridors - Championing green corridors and joining-up the natural spaces within and between communities

Green Corridors aims to protect, preserve and improve the linear green spaces that softly define community boundaries and which join up larger natural areas. It works to provide animals and birds with contiguous ‘wildlife runs’ that prevent fragmentation of the natural environment by the built environment. It gathers information and examples that will help people to protect their green spaces by knowing who to contact, what to tell them and how to use the appropriate agencies

Hands off our forest - A campaign to keep the Forest of Dean out of private hands

HOOF aims to keep the Forest as it is – publicly owned and publicly run by the Forestry Commission. Their strategy is that government should respect the 1981 Act regarding the Forest of Dean and give it, and the other Heritage Forests, full protection from disposal. They believe that ownership by charitable trusts or private companies is both impractical and a road to ruin. Steering group, news, articles, comment, contacts.

The Heart of England Forest Project

The charity aims to create a large, joined up forest that is not only for the benefit of those who will walk in it, work in it and enjoy it, but to provide corridors for native wildlife of every sort. The original vision of publisher Felix Dennis, the charity has acquired or planted a total of 1,900 acres of land with native broadleaf saplings, mainly in South Warwickshire, stretching from the ancient borders of The Forest of Arden, south to the edge of the Vale of Evesham, and much of it close to veteran woodland also purchased by Dennis. The project currently plants around 300 acres per year. Recently established its own tree nursery, and made its first purchase of existing woodland – Coughton Park Wood. The 186-acres of mainly conifer trees are being felled in stages and the plantation will be transformed into native broadleaf woodland.

Kingwood Common Preservation Group 

Formed in October 2009 by local people and users of the common to protect the common and fight enclosure. The proposal by the Commons Conservators ring Kingwood Common with a 3km long fence interspersed with 23 unsightly gates to enclose six cows for four months of the year has provoked opposition from a large number of residents. The cows will supposedly keep the woodland glades open but Kingwood Common covers a large area, of which the glades form only a very small part, and to enclose the whole common for the sake of a few small glades does not make sense. This is a rare example of a wildwood, developed naturally since grazing by commoners ceased 40-50 years ago.

Newborough Forest Protection Group

The group was formed to oppose the felling of a large area of Newborough Forest. The forest is the only large open access woodland (700 hectares) on Anglesey. It is owned by the Welsh Assembly Government and held in trust by the Assembly on behalf of 'the people of Wales'. Newborough forest has a large dune area to the east called Newborough Warren and mobile dunes around the forest/beach boundary. The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW) have claimed but failed to substantiate that the forest is undermining the conservation status of the adjoining dunes that are protected as an SAC under the EU Habitat Directive. CCW want to remove at least 40% of the forest, clear felling over 100,000 trees on about 280ha acres, a 0.5km swathe of woodland around the forest/beach boundary and along the forest/Warren edge. The group challenge the basis of the felling, both on the basis of the threat to the dunes, but also that the European Habitats Directive has left no option but to clearfell a large part of Newborough forest.

Raptor Persecution Scotland 

Documents the relentless persecution of raptors in Scotland and monitors the outcome of any prosecution cases. In recent years, this information has been suppressed from official reports and omitted by the RSPB. Raptor Persecution Scotland believes the public has a right to know whether Estates that receive agricultural subsidies are fulfilling the conditions requiring protection of wildlife. Local communities have a right to know whether wildlife crimes are being committed in their local area. Rural residents and hillwalkers have a right to know whether they, their children, pets and livestock are at risk from exposure to lethal poisoned baits in the countryside. Law-abiding shooters have a right to know whether the Estate they are paying to shoot on is reputable or whether incidents of wildlife crime have been committed there. Holiday-makers have a right to know whether the cottage they have rented is set on an estate where wildlife crime takes place. Tourists have a right to know whether the castle/house they are visiting is set on an estate where wildlife crime takes place.

Raptor Politics - Are England's birds of prey really protected by law?

Documents illegal persecution of protected birds of prey by gamekeepers on England’s moorland shooting estates, especially peregrine falcons and hen harriers. Monitors nest sites and provides stunning photographic evidence of the seasonal progress of raptor breeding. Also documents the harassment of licensed raptor workers as they work to conserve protected birds of prey. Initially set up to comment on the situation in the Forest of Bowland, Lancashire, but now provides commentary on the whole of the British scene.

Rewilding Dartmoor

The Open Group Facebook page of Sam Goodwin. Starting in February, 2014, Sam has posted photos of the characteristically shaped trees of the upland area of Dartmoor, along with his views about stepping back and allowing natural processes to take over on the moor. Sam says that huge tracts of the British countryside have been unwilded, and that the main drive of conservation has been until now management, as if nature could not care for itself. Sam thinks Dartmoor is one of the locations where the loss of diversity could be reversed, by allowing nature to reclaim it. He uses his observations out on the moors to create an understanding of what is holding back the regeneration of the upland oak woods. Inevitably, overgrazing by sheep is one issue.

Save Bintree Woods

A combined Parishes group near Dereham in Norfolk formed to campaign against the inclusion of Bintree Wood in the minerals and waste plan of Norfolk County Council in February 2008. The 300 acre wood of 70% conifer - 30% broadleaf is owned by the Forestry Commission, and has been enjoyed by locals for generations for exercise and recreation, and to see the wildlife – goshawk, owls, badgers, deer, orchids. In spring 2008, they held a well-supported protest wheel barrow march through the villages of Billingford, North Elmham and Bintree, and in December 2008, coinciding with World Forest day, villagers from Bintree, Billingford, County School, and North Elmham walked to Bintree Wood, meeting in the middle. The group argue that it is inappropriate for the Forestry Commission to offer up the woodland for destruction when this publicly owned land has so many benefits for the local area. The group have meticulously challenged every detail of the mining and waste disposal proposal, finding many faults, and are very critical at the poor consultation process. Representations were made to the Forestry Commission, who justified the destruction of Bintree Woods on the grounds of securing additional income from the forest estate.

Save Cannock Chase

A campaign set up by Cllr. Mark Davis against the sell-off of the Cannock Chase woods in the Public Forest Estate. Online petition, contacts for lobbying, photo-gallery of the woodland and its wildlife.

Save England's Forests

Campaign site launched on the back of a letter in Daily Telegraph. Roundup of what's happening on the sale of England's Public Forest Estate, lists of news articles, breakdown by constituency of the location of England's Public Forest Estate, list of local campaign groups, proposals for action.

Save Lakeland’s Forests

A campaign launched by Satterthwaite resident Paul Townsend, to Save the Lake District’s Forests from the threat of being sold off by the Government. The organisers of the campaign highlight what has happened at Rigg Wood near Coniston, which since being sold to a private owner, has seen its car park shut down, picnic area dismantled and gates locked. Key facts, map of woodland sites, up to date news digest, information on the Public Bodies (Reform) Bill, and contact details for Environment Secretary Caroline Spelman and Lakeland MPs.

Save Lyme Bay Reefs

Documents the extensive studies of the Lyme Bay Reef system since the early 90s, and the successful recovery of pink sea fan after the voluntary agreement negotiated in 2001 by Devon Wildlife Trust to stop scallop dredging in two parts of Lyme Bay. The agreement broke down in 2006. Online video on the harm caused to the reefs by scallop dredging, plus reports on the economic value of a conservation in Lyme Bay as well as the monitoring of pink sea fan. Explains proposal to give statutory protection to the whole of the Lyme Bay Reefs – 60 square miles, less than 10% of Lyme Bay.

Save the Malvern Hills from the 'Conservators'

A group highlighting the destruction of woodland on the Malvern Hills by the Conservators, especially at Midsummer Hill where heavy machinery is damaging the soil as well.

Save Penwith Moor - say NO to fences and cattle

Local group opposed to the plans from Natural England to fence off Nine Maidens Common at Boskednan near Newmill, and the moors around Carn Kenidjack above St.Just, and graze them with cattle as part of the HEATH (Heathland, Environment, Agriculture, Tourism and Heritage) Project. They fear that it may be the first step to enclosing all the wild open spaces of West Penwith, losing access to them and destroying their open character.

Save Raincliffe Woods

The objective of the group is to protect what remains of this ancient woodland, allowing for all its diversity of flora and fauna that has adapted to the woodland habitat there over several decades. The diverse nature of the woods make it an ideal location to support a variety of wildlife and plant life for which it provides shelter all through the year. Up until recent years Scarborough Council have been the custodians of the entire area and employed two rangers to safe guard the site. A local team of volunteers diligently worked at improving access and enhancing the woodland experience. However, since 2012 ‘Raincliffe Woods Community Enterprise’ (RWCE) was formed as a ‘social enterprise’ with an intention to make – ‘these woods work harder’ for the ‘community’ with a plethora of schemes, the least of which at its heart is anything to do with conservation.

SOS Save our Scilly

A group organised to highlight the problems caused by the Isles of Scilly Wildlife Group and their unpopular Conservation Grazing Programme. They object to the destruction of headlands and coastal areas on St Marys and Bryher, with cattle and ponies being allowed to roam on footpaths, and the extensive use of electric fencing blighting the landscape. A range of photographs document the damage being done by grazing and fire, as well as demonstrating the loss of access.

Save the Free Beavers of the Tay

There have been reports since 2001 of sightings of free living beavers on the River Tay and its tributaries. More recently kits have been seen, and filmed. The number of beavers was estimated at around 30 to 50,  ut field surveys over 2011 have raised that number to 100. This site and the Facebook Group of the same name, explain the background and reasons why SNHs intention to capture and remove this population is wrong.

Scottish Wild Beaver Group

Formed in 2010 in response to the decision of the Scottish Government to start trapping the wild beavers that have lived in the River Tay and its many tributaries for over 10 years. The Facebook page above brought them together and now they are a charitable organisation. The aims of the Scottish Wild Beaver Group are to promote, for the benefit of the public, the study, conservation and protection of wild Eurasian beavers and their natural habitats in Scotland. Briefing paper, mythbusters, links to videos of the free-living beavers, benefits of the beavers to wildlife, guide to field signs for surveying beavers.

Stop Fencing the Malvern Hills!

The aim of the group is to provide a focus for people opposed to the actions of the Malvern Hills Conservators that has led to the loss of open space on the Malvern Hills, where people and their animals could roam freely. Over the last few years, many areas have been ringed with the electric fences, paths have been blocked by gates and unnecessary, dangerous cattle grids have been installed widely at tax-payer's expense.  This Facebook group provides an opportunity for people to express their feelings on the subject, as well as lend support and contribute ideas towards reversing the situation.

Sutton Heath Users Group

The Group believes that there is a need to find a fairer balance between habitat conservation and the amenity rights of a substantial and increasing number of local people and visitors in using the common. They want the current mix of woodland and heath to be maintained, with no more felling of trees as land clearance for the creation of new heathland, and no more fencing for grazing purposes. The group emphasise that the common represents only a small part of the overall drive to restore the Suffolk Sandlings to heath, and thus cannot have a material impact on the heathland project. However, the HLS-driven plans of Suffolk Coastal District Council will have a dramatic negative impact on visitors to Sutton Heath. There is a link to an E-petition to the council.

TERRACE: Thursley & Elstead Residents & Riders Against Commons Enclosure  NEW

Objector group opposing the perimeter fencing of Thursley, Elstead, Royal, Ockley and Bagmoor Commons in Surrey so that Surrey Wildlife Trust can institute free-range conservation grazing of the enclosed commons in the pursuit of heathland management. The campaign is about getting a balance between public access and conservation. The group believes that the SWT plan is excessively weighted to an unproven conservation methodology, to the serious detriment of public access and public enjoyment of the contiguous commons as Public Open Space. Rebutals the fencing and grazing arguments. Online Petition.

Trees for Life

A charity located at Findhorn on the Moray Firth coast, whose main focus is to assist the natural regeneration of the Caledonian Forest. The forest once covered a large area of the Highlands of Scotland. Practical work began in 1989 and over 472,000 native trees have since been planted, and numerous areas have been protected with fenced exclosures so that natural regeneration of the trees can take place in the absence of overgrazing by deer. One of the partners in rewilding Glen Affric. Good resource for information on the ecology of Scottish pine woodlands, and with inspiring writings and the past and future.

Wild Law UK

A group of lawyers, activists, students, academics and others committed to securing laws that are for the Earth. They believe that the UK should recognise that the most basic of human rights (i.e. a right to air, to water and to food) are intrinsically linked to nature's rights and without recognition of the intrinsic value of nature and the right of all beings to exist, to have habitat and to fulfil their natural roles, the long term sustainability of humans (and all life) is at risk. Worth reading the groups consultation responses to a UK Bill of Rights and the National Planning Policy Framework, and their thoughts on the Natural Environment White Paper.

West Wales Marine Conservation

A collaboration between the Pembrokeshire local group of the Marine Conservation Society, the sports diving organisation South and West Wales Seasearch, and active supporters of the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve. Good information on the benefits of no-take zones, and why the Skomer MNR should be turned into a Highly Protected Marine Reserve (an NTZ) in the new Marine Bill. Has an online petition for the HPMR.

Wildland Research Institute (WRi)

Launching in October, 2009, and based at Leeds University. Its Director is Dr Steve Carver, one of the very few people in Britain to lecture, research and write about wildland. The Institute will take an interdisciplinary approach to research, combining social and natural sciences, as well as the arts and literary world, and will ask questions about the requirements, strategies and policies needed for a transition to a greater presence of wild landscapes and natural processes in the UK. A program of research collaboration is already underway with universities in North America, and WRi involvement in the recent Wild Europe conference in Prague is the beginning of its European collaboration.

Wildlife and Countryside - UK

Access MoD

A new web address into information on access for walking in the  240,000 hectares of the MoD's Estate. It has 1300km of public rights of way and 200km of routes. Their are Fourteen walks downloadable as well as overall information on each of the ranges.


An online distance learning course for an MA in Values and the Environment, Lancaster University. The course is made up from a range of modules.

The Environmental Ethics module has students thinking about stewardship, sustainability, the land ethic and respect for nature. There is an interesting contest set up between the preservation of "wilderness" and urban environmental ethics. The course material seems unaware of the concept and application of urban ecology. depts/philosophy/awaymave/403/403home.htm

Badger Trust

Set up in 1986 to represent and support what is now around 80 local voluntary badger groups, the Trust promotes the conservation and welfare of badgers and the protection of their setts and habitats. The Trust provides expert advice on all badger issues, including information sheets on the life of badgers, their habitats and behaviour and how to watch them; the threats to setts and foraging grounds; and reviews the science on bovine  tuberculosis and culling.


Personal website of badger watcher and photographer, Steve Barnett. Good advice on how to watch badgers, as well as information on the law that protects badgers. A links page and gallery of his photographs.

Beaver Information Exchange for Wales

Aims to provide reliable information on the European Beaver as background to the consultation currently going on in Wales for reintroduction of beaver, and the benefits and costs associated with such an initiative. Developed by the North Wales Wildlife Trust in coordination with farming, forestry, fisheries and conservation interests as part of a cooperative consultation exercise. Extensive information on reintroductions, impacts, benefits, management and legalities.

British Association of Nature Conservationists (BANC)

Publishes ECOS, their subscription journal, which contains pretty mainstream comment and analysis on UK conservation. Often has articles on "rewilding lite" for Britain.

British Wild Boar

Provides information and a forum for discussion and research about the animals living wild in Britain. Promoting the re-introduction of the wild boar into Britain.

Community Woodlands Association

The CWA work with over 70 community woodland groups in Scotland giving support and advice on issues such as planning, obtaining land, setting up a committee, legal matters, biodiversity, fundraising, project management, access issues and insurance. Their meetings and newsletters keep communities in touch with what's going on regionally and nationally.

Conservation Evidence - sharing conservation experience

A database of conservation case studies and synopses of conservation issues, submitted by conservation professionals, and hosted by the University of East Anglia. To amend a phrase, this website is the "longest death note in history" for wild nature. Examples of scrub persecution, single species optimisation, and general landscape interference abound. To avoid nightmares, do not browse this website last thing at night.

Continuous Cover Forestry Group

A technical and professional organisation promoting the transformation of even-aged plantations to structurally, visually and biologically diverse woodlands with the aim of sustaining and enhancing the production of quality timber according to the principles of continuous cover management. Also has close links to the Pro Silva movement in Europe. List of principles, image gallery, newsletter, meetings/workshops.

Council for National Parks

A charity that works to protect and enhance the National Parks of England and Wales, and areas that merit National Park status and promote understanding and quiet enjoyment of them for the benefit of all.

Countryside Council for Wales

The statutory conservation agency for Wales, it strives to give each area of countryside the particular help it needs through efficient 'countryside management'. If you are lucky, you might stumble over the area on the website that lists the NNRs and SSSIs in Wales, or even their interactive map.

Deer Initiative

A broad partnership of statutory, voluntary and private interests dedicated to "ensuring the delivery of a sustainable, well-managed wild deer population in England". Species information with endearing pictures.

Do or Die - Voices from the Ecological Resistance

An occasional journal, republished on the web, with reports and analysis from the world-wide ecological frontlines. The series of articles on ecological restoration are interesting and uninhibited.

Ecological Flora of the British Isles

Database compiled at York University on over 2200 species of higher plants that occur in the British Isles. Has information on taxonomy (family, genus, specific name, authority, and vernacular name, together with a synonomy), a set of over 130 ecological and morphological characteristics, vice-county distribution in Britain, European distribution by country, mycorrhizal associations, phytophagous insects and fungal diseases. Direct links are provided to the NBN Gateway Distribution Maps for each species.

Environmental Issues - Stephen Rowe

Stephen is an angry young man. His articles, college studies, and a few rants, document his disillusion with what he regards as the destructive falsity of current nature conservation by organisations such as English Nature and BTCV. On the use of grazing in conservation, he says “The present policy of grazing is maintaining an unnatural environment”. Somewhat idiosyncratic in prose style, his insight on a number of issues is astonishing in someone so young.

FACT (Forum for the Application of Conservation Techniques)

This is a scary website. Backed by English Nature, and the usual suspects in a broad-ranging partnership, it exists to “Identify, and co-ordinate action on practical habitat management problems”. Useful to those who are addicted to managing nature, it has handbooks on scrub management, pesticide use, and management techniques for every habitat. Human ecological imperialism writ large. I despair. It is also the umbrella for an number of projects that may perhaps have some independence of thought from this mainstream megalomania. NO LONGER HAS A WEB PRESENCE

Flora Locale

Charity established in 1997 that aims to promote good practice in the use and sourcing of British and Irish wild flora for all projects in those countries that are involved in large-scale habitat creation and restoration projects in the countryside. Lists suppliers of native flora, guidelines for planting projects, habitat descriptions, online library and tutorial system, and case studies. Predominantly an advocate for open landscape species.

Flora of the Fells

A project, funded by English Nature and Friends of the Lake District, that raises awareness of the value of allowing natural processes a greater role in the running of the upland landscape in Cumbria.

Forest Harvest - Non-timber Forest Products in Scotland

Information about non-timber harvests from Scottish woodlands, provided by Reforesting Scotland (see below). Scottish woodlands provide a wide range of such products, including wild and managed game, edible and medicinal plants and mushrooms, foliage, seeds, bark, resins, dyes and craft materials. Species and Product lists, history of use of non-timber harvests, and management and gathering information. All linked in to descriptions and locations of Scottish woods.

Forestry Commission

The Government agency responsible for forestry policy and management of the public forests throughout Great Britain. Has as well separate areas for the home nations. Search system and guides to walking in the various FC woodlands. Extensive statistics provided in various ways. Many woodland management publications free to download.


A one page, daily digest of wildlife and environment news from around the British Isles. Items are from a variety of sources which are grouped together under themes, such as Mammals, Birds, Marine, Plants, Climate, Energy, England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Links to websites associated with each theme.

Invasive Alien Species

Information on all Alien or Non-native organisms that are invasive in the UK

John Muir Trust

Conserves and protects wild places with their indigenous animals, plants and soils for the benefit of present and future generations, and in particular to renew wild places, where they have been damaged, by encouraging natural processes. Interesting page explaining their adopted definition of wildland.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC)

The JNCC provides wildlife advice to government, and undertakes national and international conservation work for the UK nature conservation agencies. Has downloadable publications from its reports series and an online database of classified habitats and species. The site best way to use this website is to look at the site map.

Mammal Society

Protects British mammals. Fact sheet for each mammal.

Mammals Trust

Protecting UK native animals and their habitats.

Moor Trees

A charity based in Chudleigh, whose vision is to encourage areas of Dartmoor to return to forest wilderness. Produces trees for Moor Trees planting schemes and involves the local community wherever possible. Extensive programme of projects ranging from seed gathering and growing trees on various sites around Dartmoor to training nursery co-ordinators and increasing the number of nursery sites.

National Biodiversity Net

The NBN is a project to build the UK's first network of biodiversity information. Online habitats dictionary, and a species dictionary with entries for each list that the species may be on (eg Red List, UKBAP, WCA 81 etc.) and links into the NBN Gateway which provides an interactive mapping system for species distribution in the UK based on 10km squares (hectads).

National Biodiversity Net Gateway

View distribution maps of British species based on 10km squares (hectads) and cross reference these spatial locations with NNR, SSSI, LBAPS, AONBs etc. Maps can be used interactively.

National Trust

Known primarily for its stewardship of historic buildings in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, its Enterprise Neptune project has been vital in safeguarding 700 miles of coastline. Its landholdings are increasingly being turned over to various rewilding projects - not that you would know it from their website.

National Trust for Scotland

The Trust was established in 1931 to protect architectural, scenic and historic features, including large areas of Scottish countryside. Partner to a number of rewilding projects. Has a policy statement on wildland.

Natural England

Established by the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006, Natural England has been formed by bringing together English Nature, the landscape, access and recreation elements of the Countryside Agency and the environmental land management functions of the Rural Development Services. Natural England unites in a single organisation responsibility for protecting and enhancing biodiversity and landscapes, as well as promoting greater access and recreation. Contains information on all the National Nature Reserves (NNR) and Sites of Special Scientific Information (SSSI) in England, plus research and information reports.

North East Mountain Trust

An association of climbers and hill walkers in north east Scotland that promotes the conservation of mountain and coastal environments.

Open Spaces Society

Protects common land and public rights of way. Instrumental in supporting a number of local groups in defending their publicly owned open spaces from tree clearance, and from being fenced off and grazed.

People and Wildlife

Seeks to resolve conflicts between the needs of people and those of wildlife, and develop long-term, humane solutions. Conflict resolution manuals, an advisory service, noticeboard and bibliographic resources. A partnership between the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit and Born Free Foundation.


Carries out wild plant species and habitat conservation, and owns and manages nature reserves. Major tree persecutor.

Reforesting Scotland

An Edinburgh based charity whose vision is to transform deforested Scotland back to a landscape with a mosaic of ecologically healthy and productive forests and well managed farmland. Twice-yearly journal and a membership newsletter. Information sheets on setting up a community woodland, native tree nursery, non-timber harvest products (fuelwood).

Scottish Beavers Network

An organisation promoting the re-introduction of the European beaver into Scotland.

Scottish Environment Link

The voice of Scotland's environment movement

Scottish Native Woods

A charity dedicated to the conservation of native woodlands in Scotland. Do not own land, but help others to manage their woodlands by surveying and preparing management plans, help secure grants, supervise contracts and monitor progress. Organise training and demonstration events for woodland owners, tenants and managers.

Scottish Natural Heritage

The statutory conservation agency working for the care and protection of the natural beauty and wildlife of Scotland. Promoting access and enjoyment of it, and facilitating an understanding and appreciation of its value. Has a policy statement on wildland.

Scottish Wildcat Association

Early days for this Association established in 2007, and seeking charity incorporation before it opens to a membership. The aim is conserving the Scottish wildcat through awareness campaigns, supporting the captive breeding program and scientific research. Description of the natural history of the wild cat (excellent pictures), how to identify it and distinguish from hybrids, the current threats faced, especially from hybridisation with feral domestic cats, and a mapped compilation of sightings since March 2007.

Scottish Wildlands Group

Works to protect and conserve wild land throughout Scotland. Interesting newsletter articles.

Scottish Wildlife Trust

One of the partners in promoting the "official" re-introduction of beaver In Knapdale Forest.

Small Woods Association

A Shropshire-based charity, the SWA provides information to anyone wanting to conserve, plant, manage or harvest woods and trees. It acts as a focus for new bodies aiming to improve public awareness of the importance of woodlands and to stimulate or support local timber supply chains. Members include those with a general interest, local authorities,  foresters, owners, coppice workers, botanists, ecologists and timber technologists who all share their knowledge and experience to encourage the enhancement of woodlands and to maximise the rewards. Their downloadable Woodland Initiatives Handbook is excellent.

Tooth and Claw - living alongside Britain's predators

An open forum on the issues surrounding our relationship with wild predators. The online survey is building a picture on how we really feel about Britain's predators, and why. The aim is to find more imaginative ways of bringing seemingly opposing human agendas together so that we can co-exist in the long term with species such as fox, hen harrier, sea eagle and potential re-introductions such as lynx. Case studies and species profiles.

Trees for Cities

An charity set up in 1993 (initially as Trees for London) to work with local communities on tree planting projects. Their aim is to tackle global warming, create social cohesion and beautify cities through tree planting, community, education and training initiatives in urban areas of greatest need. Useful practical information and best practice guidelines.

UK Wildfile

An independent website that aims to help internet users to reach information on UK wildlife and other environmental themes

Who Owns Scotland

Data on land ownership obtained from research in the Registers of Scotland and the National Archives of Scotland using title deeds as source material

Who Owns Britain and Ireland

Site is in development. Based on the work of Kevin Cahill, who has traced land ownership from the mid-19th century to today and shows that the majority of the population live in enforced density while the other 93% of land is enjoyed by the land-owning few.

Wild About Britain

A website with a free online newspaper (British Nature Conservation Magazine), online forums for the wildlife community (over 300 members and many threads) and a gallery of UK nature photography. There is an encyclopaedia to British Wildlife, a listings directory for wildlife organisations and places, and a calendar of events, all of which are available for submissions to the website.

Wild Ennerdale

Developing Ennerdale Valley in the Lake District as a wild place, allowing natural forces to become more dominant in the shaping of the landscape and the ecology and therefore providing an inspirational visitor experience. A "nature development" project based on cattle grazing.

Wilderness Britain

A record of a series of seminars, meetings and field trips during 2001 that investigated the idea of wilderness in Britain. Culminated in a three-day conference of discussion groups, invited papers and keynote presentations from leading workers in the field. Economic and Social Research Council and the University of Leeds

Wilderness Foundation

(formerly named Wilderness Trust)

A perhaps paternalistic legacy in its approach to  the peoples and wilderness of other countries, based on founder Laurens Van der Post and patron, Sir Wilfrid Thesiger. The recent change of name suggests a change in emphasis is on the way.

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust

Wetland conservation charity.

Wildland Network

The WILDLAND NETWORK gave a voice to wild land values in Britain. Its first national meeting took place in Leeds on the 9th May, 2005. Other meetings followed, but it never developed a vision and strategy for a wilder Britain.

Wildlife and Countryside - DEFRA

Information about the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affair's work on the conservation of wildlife and landscape, and on countryside recreation.

Wildlife and Countryside Link

Brings together environmental voluntary organisations in the UK united by their common interest in the conservation and enjoyment of the natural and historic environment. Good links page

Wildlife Trusts

National and county-based charity supporting wildlife education and activities, and  owning and managing wildlife and nature reserves. major "farmers" of agri-environment subsidies as well as woodland management grants and Heritage lottery Funding. Insensitive to anything other than their own conservation industry dogma.

Wildwood Trust

A charity  committed to improving wildlife throughout the UK. Involved in conservation programs of many native species, such as the water vole, the hazel dormouse, the sand lizard, water shrew and the European beaver. Runs the Woodland Discovery Park (between Canterbury & Herne Bay) containing owls, otters, badgers, beavers, wild boar and wolves. Hoping to establish a large woodland nature reserve, managed by large browsing and grazing animals such as konik ponies.

Wolf Trust

Promotes the reintroduction and recovery of wolves back to Britain in the Scottish Highlands.

Wolves and Humans Foundation

A registered UK charity working with people and communities to find practical solutions to the problems of co-existence with wolves, bears and lynx. "The future of large carnivores in Europe in the twenty-first century depends on the ability of people to adapt to their presence and resolve conflicts that arise when these animals exist in close proximity to human activities, particularly livestock-raising." Species profiles, a history of wolves in Scotland and a view on their re-introduction, and a reading list.

Woodland Trust

A conservation charity dedicated to the protection of UK native woodland heritage. Many policy documents and guides, plus a portfolio of woodlands across Britain that you can walk in.

Woods And Trees Under Threat

A joint initiative by the Woodland Trust and Ancient Tree Forum. A collection point for a comprehensive picture of where ancient woods and ancient trees are under threat so that help can be given to promote better protection of these habitats. Useful online mapping system that shows ancient woodland sites in the UK over 2ha in size, and those which are at threat. Provides a campaigning guide for action.

Woods for People

A partnership between the Woodland Trust, Forestry Commission and Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland) to gather information on the open accessibility of woodland in the UK, and to develop a Woodland Access Standard. Tables giving regional information on woodland accessibility, and maps showing their location in the home countries.


Wildlife and Countryside - Europe

European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism

Aims to increase understanding that certain European farming systems are of high nature conservation and cultural value

Forêts Sauvages (Wild Forests)

A voluntary association, based in S France, committed to the ideal and preservation of natural forests, and believes their policy of non-intervention can only be secured by owning and thus controlling these forests. Their brochure has stunning pictures of woodland wildlife. Produce a downloadable newsletter with excellent articles that show their breadth of view of and participation in the European scene. (Website in French)

Foundation for Natural Landscapes in Brandenburg

Between 2002 and 2009, the Foundation gradually purchased a total of 10,800 hectares of land on the former military training grounds of Jüterbog, Heidehof and Lieberose in southern Brandenburg. In addition, the German Society for Nature Conservation (NABU) provided it with 1,050 hectares of land on the former military training ground of Lieberose. Restoration of wilderness is the main objective of the Foundation, combined with creating public trails that open up the wilderness experience.

Grazing Ecology and Forest History

The theories of Frans Vera on the effect of wild herbivores on landscapes. His book is published by CABI, and the contents and first chapter can be downloaded. (And see Grazing Networks)

Grazing Networks

(Formerly Grazing in nature reserves)

A new site from Hans Kampf in Holland about grazing animals and ecological networks. Contains information about nature conservation (ecological networks) in Holland, some articles about the use of grazing animals in nature conservation, and pictures of grazing animals. See also the book Grazing Ecology and Forest History by Frans Vera.

Mountain Wilderness Slovenia

The Slovenian branch of Mountain Wilderness International, founded in 2001. An active group that advances the cause and protection of Slovenia's mountain wilderness, especially in the Triglav National Park (TNP). Holds conferences and workshops, and works to influence in particular the delayed new legislation on TNP, and which they seek an area of the park of 75% where there is no exploitative land use. In the past, supported application for PAN Parks certification for TNP and recognition as IUCN II. Read the Biella Theses, the declaration of ideas of the mountain wilderness movement agreed at Biella in 1987.

National Parks & Wildlife Service – Ireland

The NPWS is part of the Department of the Environment, Heritage & Local Government. It manages the Irish State's nature conservation responsibilities under National and European law. Full listings for their six National Parks, and for their 77 Nature Reserves. Also information on Ireland’s new basic designation for wildlife of Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs).

PAN Parks

The PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks Foundation is a non-profit organization, based in Hungary with funding from WWF Netherlands. Their prime objective is to form a network of self-regulating ecosystems with large carnivores and herbivores on a European wide scale. Through a certification system, the Foundation brings together the management of existing protected areas with their local sustainable tourism businesses in forming a PAN Park marketable for wildland tourism. A core wilderness area is a key feature of a PAN Park. This untouched core zone, where no extractive use such as forestry or hunting are allowed, makes a PAN Park different from other protected areas across Europe. A PAN Parks wilderness is a large area of land, (at least 10,000 hectares) which, together with the native plant and animal communities of its ecosystems, is in an essentially natural state. Of the six PAN Parks certified so far - one each in Finland, Sweden, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria and Russia – these core wilderness areas represent between 30-60% of the PAN Park areas that themselves range in size from 28-72,000 ha.

Pro Silva Europe

A European federation of foresters who advocate forest management based on natural processes, founded in Slovenia in 1989 and with membership in Ireland, Spain, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Austria, Holland, France and Belgium. Members adopt a holistic approach involving perpetual forest cover, landscape protection, use of indigenous species, natural regeneration, and areas of non-intervention. Good overview given in their series of four forestry principles, and the agreed statements from their recent conferences. Deal well with the use and problems associated with non-indigenous forest species. Currently building casework and demonstration examples from various member countries.

Wild Europe

The website of the landmark Conference on Wilderness and Large Natural Habitat Areas that took place in Prague, May 2009. Full conference documentation including background briefings, conference presentations, and workshop reports. The conference POSELSTVÍ (Message) FROM PRAGUE - An Agenda for Europe’s Wild Areas, gives a summary of the conference and sets out 24 recommendations that cover policy development, awareness building, further work and information needs, and on supporting capacity.

Wild Europe Initiative

EUROPARC hosted a round table meeting on the subject of "Wilderness in the European Union" in Ceský Krumlov at EUROPARC 2007, which brought together European experts to examine the concept of wilderness in the European Union, place wilderness on the European agenda, find ways of promoting its importance and draw up guidance for the stewardship of wilderness. After the meeting, EUROPARC and PAN Parks joined forces with other organisations in the Wild Europe Initiative in the publication of a Resolution on Wilderness Areas.

Wilderness in Europe - European Parliament resolution

The text of the resolution passed by the Parliament in Strasbourg on the 3 February 2009

Marine Protection

A future for our seas - Marine Campaign, Wildlife & Countryside Link (WCL) UK

WCL have been running an excellent marine campaign, with press releases, bulletins, reports, working papers and case studies that sought to influence the contents of a Marine Bill for the UK. Solid and informative briefings.

Commonwealth marine protected areas– Dept of Environment & Water, Australia

The Australian Government manages an estate of MPAs that are Commonwealth reserves under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Act requires that each reserve or zone should be managed in accordance with the Australian IUCN Reserve Management Principles and that these management principles are reflected in the management plan. Australia's governments are working together to set up a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas (NRSMPA) throughout their entire marine jurisdiction. Benefits of MPAs, legal framework, criteria, range of protection, declaration process, guidelines for setting up NRSMPA, location mapping, and information on each reserve.

Finding Sanctuary UK

Stakeholder-led partnership project, backed by Natural England and JNCC, that aims to create a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) around the coasts and seas of South West England. Good explanations of MPAs and the need for them in the SW, and describes the approach of the project and the principles it will use. Newsletters, stakeholder meeting reports.

Living seas – Wildlife Trusts UK

Marine Bill campaign, marine wildlife surveys and research, projects, news, reports and pamphlets.

Marine and Coastal Access Bill [HL] 2008-09

Follow the progress of this Bill through the debate, committee and report stages of Parliament. Links to download the proposed amendments, Bill and explanatory notes.

Marine – Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) UK

JNCC, as a statutory adviser to Government, undertakes surveillance and mapping of marine habitats and landscapes, the collation and analysis of marine data, the conservation of marine species, the identification of marine protected areas and advising on their subsequent protection and management. Information on marine habitats, Conventions and legislation, marine SACs and the habitats and fish species covered by them, marine SPAs and their birds and habitats, and species information on sea birds, sea ducks and cetaceans.

Marine Conservation Society UK

Protection of the UK marine environment and its wildlife. Species and habitat information, plus briefings supporting the setting up of marine protecetd areas. Tracks the progress of the Marine Bill

Marine and fisheries – Defra, UK

Pages on marine biodiversity, environment, fisheries, marine and fisheries science, salmon and freshwater fisheries, as well as the main source of information on the Marine Bill, and its proposed designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs).

Marine Protected Areas – Dept of Conservation NZ

Under the Marine Reserves Act 1971, the DOC is responsible for managing marine reserves. NZ aims to build on their current system of 28 reserves by establishing a network of MPAs to protect a full range of marine habitats and ecosystems. The New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy (2000) goal includes having 10% of the marine environment in a network of Marine Protected Areas by 2010. Reserve information, including location map and monitoring.

MPA Global - a database of the world's Marine Protected Areas

A world-wide database of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) that have some intertidal and/or subtidal component, based largely on information in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) Version 6.1. It is a collaboration between the Sea Around Us Project, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) and the World Conservation Union - World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). You can search the database for MPAs by Country, International Conventions and Programmes, or by the name of the Site. The database uses the IUCN Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories and has a field for No Take Zones (NTZ).

National Marine Conservation Areas of Canada – Parks Canada

Canada has the longest coastline in the world. The Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act 2002 gives Parks Canada responsibility for setting up a national system of MPAs, protecting these ecosystems and managing them for visitors. The National Marine Conservation Areas system divides the country's oceans and Great Lakes into 29 marine regions, each one a distinct combination of physical and biological characteristics. Information on creating new National Marine Conservation Areas.

National Marine Protected Areas Centre – Depts of Commerce & Interior, USA

A mix of federal, state, and local legislation, voter initiatives, and regulations has created MPAs since the 1950s, resulting in a range of types such as reserves, refuges, preserves, sanctuaries, and areas of special biological significance. Executive Order 13158 in 2000 created the National MPA Center, and directs federal agencies to work with non-federal partners to develop a National MPA System, evaluating the needs for habitat protection and to devise the best management approach to meet those needs on a system-wide basis. Benefits of a National System, MPA definitions and criteria, inventory of marine managed areas from which to identify MPAs, legislation, fact sheets, newsletters, case studies, plus extensive Framework document that pulls all this together.

No Take Marine Reserves, NZ

A website about the no-take marine reserves of New Zealand from Bill Ballantine of the Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland. Dr Ballantine was involved in the six-year campaign to enact New Zealand's Marine Reserve Act in 1971. Much explanation, simply put about NTZs, coupled with forthright views on the reaction of the fishing industry, all based on the success of the New Zealand experience within such reserves.

OSPAR Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the NE Atlantic

The 1992 OSPAR Convention is the current instrument guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. Information on protection and conservation of marine biodiversity and ecosystems through the creation of an ecologically coherent network of well managed marine protected areas. Guidelines for identifying, selecting and managing MPAs, and on network ecological coherence. Current status of the OSPAR network of MPAs, including table of each countries contribution to the overall network. UK contribution is the marine SACs.

UK Marine Protected Areas Centre -The information resource for Marine Protected Areas practitioners

The UK MPAs Centre is an online resource for information and news on Marine Protected Areas, launched in 2007 after the first UK Conference on MPAs, and backed by Natural England. It has a News section, FAQS, glossary, links, searchable reference database of literature on MPAs, and is developing a series of topic notes. Interactive map of current UK MPA sites such as SACs, SPAs, MNRs and voluntary MPAs.

WWF-UK Marine Act Campaign

Key facts and information on campaign issues, including marine spatial planning, MPAs and governance. Extensive list of publications and reports.

Wilderness, National Parks, Forests, Rewilding - North America

Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute

A federally funded research group focused on wilderness, developing the knowledge needed to protect and preserve wilderness and the ecological and social values derived from Wilderness and similarly managed lands, and communicating and applying this knowledge to the Wilderness management agencies and other user groups.

American Wildlands - Science-based conservation for the Northern Rockies

American Wildlands advocates the protection, restoration and connectivity of the wild landscapes and the mountain-fed waters of the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountain region in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming that includes Yellowstone, Grand Teton and Glacier NPs, plus many wildernesses. Using science and GIS mapping, they identify and prioritize the wild lands, waters and species habitat most in need of conservation, and then work with decision-makers to shape policies and projects. Natural history of area, program information, research and reports.

Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Centre

Development and implementation of wilderness training, information, and education programs.

Canadian Model Forest Network

There are 11 Model Forests in the Canadian Model Forest Network (CMFN), a network created by the Government of Canada through the Canadian Forest Service and funded under Canada’s Model Forest Program. A Model Forest is a partnership of public and private landowners, government, industry, universities, Aboriginal communities and other organizations that have a common interest in achieving Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) within a local, defined forest area. SFM is management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems while providing ecological, economic, social and cultural opportunities for the benefit of present and future generations. Each Model Forest is run by a not-for-profit organization. Model Forests range in size from 113,000 hectares to 7.7 million hectares, covering typical scales at which district-level forest management decisions are made.

Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society

National non-profit organization devoted to protecting Canada's wilderness heritage.

Defenders of Wildlife

Dedicated to the protection of all native wild animals and plants in their natural communities. Its programs encourage protection of entire ecosystems and interconnected habitats while protecting predators that serve as indicator species for ecosystem health

Green Infrastructure

Website of the Green Infrastructure Leadership Program of the Conservation Fund. The project was developed to help communities and their partners make green infrastructure an integral part of local and regional plans and community decisions. The Conservation Fund is among many organizations that utilize the Green Infrastructure Approach to Strategic Conservation, simultaneously focusing on the best lands to conserve and the best lands to accommodate development. Services of the project include rapid assessments and drafting of comprehensive green infrastructure plans, plus training in a strategic approach for prioritizing conservation opportunities and a planning framework for conservation and development. The project has numerous publications and articles, some of which can be downloaded. There is a comprehensive digest of green infrastructure projects across America, and a range of excellent case studies.

Leave it wild - Campaign for America's Wilderness

Works to achieve lasting protection for threatened wild lands, by providing local wilderness advocates with expertise in campaign planning and implementation, strategically placed resources for opinion research, communications, and public education efforts. Campaign staff have been involved in the passage of every major piece of wilderness legislation in the last 35 years. Decision-making tools, briefing papers, campaign reports and success stories.

National Park Service

Portal into the National Parks and Monuments of America. A very informative website, making it easy to track down places of interest, giving their history, wildlife and how to get access to them.

Parks Canada

Canada's National Parks are a country-wide system of representative natural areas of Canadian significance. By law, they are protected for public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment, while being maintained in an unimpaired state for future generations. Parks Canada is responsible for both protecting the ecosystems of these natural areas and managing them for visitors to understand, appreciate, and enjoy in a way that doesn't compromise their integrity. Much information given on management philosophy and approach - including wilderness - and the creation of new National Parks.

Pennsylvania Wildlands Recovery Project

Their mission: To advocate, design and implement the first, comprehensive wildlands network proposal for Pennsylvania - a long-range plan to connect our wildlands with each other and with protected areas in neighbouring states

Predator Conservation Alliance– Saving a Place for America's Predators

Dedicated to conserving, protecting, and restoring native predators and their habitats in the Northern Rockies and Northern Plains. Advocate on behalf of: black bear, black-footed ferret, burrowing owl, coyote, ferruginous hawk, fisher, grizzly bear, lynx, marten, mountain lion, northern goshawk, swift fox, wolf and wolverine. Collect, use and share the best scientific information to determine each species' ecological condition, threats to their survival, and monitoring needs. Pursue all administrative, legal and public pressure avenues to secure adequate protections for predators and their habitats. Good general info. on predators and species info.


Interesting articles that suggest we were better off before the development of agriculture ("The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race"). What is a wild human? Primitivism. Poetry, stories, booknotes.

Rewilding Institute

Recently founded in 2003, the Rewilding Institute is a "think tank" of Fellows that develops and promotes the ideas and strategies to advance continental-scale conservation in North America, particularly the need for large carnivores and a permeable landscape for their movement, and to offer a bold and hopeful vision for the future of wild Nature and human civilization in North America. The website has ecological criteria for wilderness identification and selection.

Sierra Club

Has a Wildlands Campaign to secure lasting protection for 100 million acres of wild America in the next decade.

Society for Ecological Restoration (SER)

A non-profit organization infused with the energy of 2300 members – individuals and organizations who are actively engaged in ecologically-sensitive repair and management of ecosystems. The Society does not itself engage in restoration projects; its mission is to promote ecological restoration as a means of sustaining the diversity of life on Earth and re-establishing an ecologically healthy relationship between nature and culture. Good range of Reading Resources including The SER Primer on Ecological Restoration, Guidelines for Ecological Restoration, Natural Capital and Ecological Restoration, and SER Environmental Policies

Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project

SREP with the Wildlands Project and the Denver Zoo, have produced a Wildlands Network Vision for the Southern Rockies to protect and rewild the regional landscape. In area, it covers about 62% of the Southern Rockies ecoregion, straddling Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. The Wildlands Network Design is a pro-active, landscape-based conservation map that designates areas as core protected, wildlife movement and riparian linkages, or compatible-use areas. Good example of wildlands network design (see also Wildlands Project). Check out the proposals for the I70 highway overpass just west of Vail, as an example of bridging for a wildlife corridor.

Urban Scout

Urban Scout, is a “hunter gatherer wanna be” who is rewilding himself in spite of the civilisation around him that he abhors. His is a form of “horticulturalism”, separated from civilisation’s agriculture in that the former strengthens the biological community and the latter weakens it. His blog sets up a dialectic between his rewilding and the various settings of civilisation.

Western Canada Wilderness Committee  NEW

A membership-based, citizen-funded wilderness preservation organization founded in British Columbia, Canada, in 1980, in. Reaches out through door-to-door canvasses, educational publications, rallies and events, and the media. Educational mission supported by a research and mapping program, strategic alliances with other environmental groups, First Nations and community leaders, and regular expeditions into threatened wilderness areas. Large publication resource, campaign news and links.

Wilderness Society

Protecting America's Wilderness since 1935 through a combination of science, advocacy and education. Developed the Wilderness Act that since 1964 has been the cornerstone of wilderness preservation in America

Wilderness Watch

A national organization focused on the preservation and proper stewardship of lands and rivers already included in the National Wilderness Preservation System and National Wild & Scenic Rivers System

Extensive information on the National Wilderness Preservation System in America.

Wilderdom - a project in natural living & transformation

Not sure how to describe this website. Wilderdom "explores human-nature relations and seeks sustainable solutions to modern-living. Anyone can experience Wilderdom by living in conjunction with nature." Has a section on Outdoor Education Research & Evaluation, within which is a useful section on Wilderness & Education. The link will get you straight there.

Wildlands CPR - reviving wild places

A national clearinghouse and network, created by a core group of sixteen organizations, that targets off-road vehicle abuse of public lands and actively promotes wildland restoration, road removal, the prevention of new road construction, and limits to motorized recreation.

Wildlands Project

Founded in 1991 to work on restoring and protecting the natural heritage of North America through the establishment of a connected system of wildlands. The Project and its partners have completed five Wildlands Network Designs, and a sixth WND will be completed for the greater northern Appalachian region in 2005 (A Checklist for Wildlands Network Design is available on the website). These landscape-scale conservation plans establish conservation priorities for very large regions. Dozens of partner groups are now actively working to turn these hopeful visions of what could be into reality on the ground.

Wildlife Conservation Society - saving wildlife

Mission is to save wildlife and wild lands through careful science, international conservation, education, and re-engagement of people and wildlife through the management of the world’s largest system of urban wildlife parks. The latter are a series of renowned "zoos" in New York city, but their remit goes wider in researching and supporting initiatives that hope to ensure a wild future in North America and around the world. Take a large scale approach that includes human interaction, predator prey relationships and migrations in locations such as the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Good section on worldwide landscape ecology, including 'Last of the Wild' locations and a description of their main biomes.

Wildlife Crossings Toolkit

Designed for professional wildlife biologists and engineers faced with integrating highway infrastructure and wildlife resources. Case histories, articles and a collection of drawings of many types of crossing structure. Useful for those who have seen the examples of wildlife bridges spanning motorways in Holland and want to see if they have a use in the UK.

WildEarth Guardians - a force for nature

Protects and restores wildlife, wild rivers, and wild places in the American West. Range of policy reform for wildlife, public lands (including retiring grazing permits) and rivers. Calls for abolition of the Federally-funded Wildlife Services,  a branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that between 2004 and 2006,  killed over 6 million wild animals - including coyotes, wolves, bobcats, cougars, badgers, and bears - to protect agribusiness.

Wild Ones: Native Plants, Natural Landscapes

A not-for-profit educational and advocacy membership organisation formed in 1990 that encourages environmentally sound natural landscaping practices to preserve biodiversity through the preservation, restoration and establishment of native plant communities in America. The inspiration of the Wild Ones is Lorrie Otto, a pioneer of prairie restoration. Good resources for understanding the importance of native plant communities and practical approaches to their restoration and preservation.


Australasia and southern hemisphere

Department of Conservation, New Zealand

A very comprehensive website with information on their parks and reserves, the legislation that underpins them, and their approach to receration opportunites in the 30% of publicly owned land that the Department administers. There is also information on their marine protected areas, New Zealand being one of the first countries in the world to institute designation of no take zones.

Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australia

The Australian Government website with information on their national parks, reserves and botanic gardens, marine protected areas, the Biogeographical Regions, Indigenous Protected Areas, and the National Reserve System. Plenty of information on all of these, as well as the Collaborative Australian Protected Areas Database (CAPAD) which contains information on all protected areas in Australia, including their IUCN management categories.

Natural Heritage Trust, Australia

The Trust was set up by the Australian Government in 1997 to help restore and conserve Australia's environment and natural resources. It provides funding for environmental activities at community, regional, State and national level. It is jointly administered by the Australian Government departments of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry and the Environment and Heritage.

Wilderness Action Group - South Africa

A small, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental membership organisation, constituted in 1989 and based in KwaZulu-Natal, South African. WAG promotes wilderness conservation, both regionally and internationally. Through its activities in advocacy, technical planning and management advice, education and training, and publishing, it promotes the importance, the values and uniqueness of African wilderness and the need to protect it for present and future generations. It advocates that wilderness areas can and should be designated on public, communal and private land throughout southern Africa and further a field.

Wilderness Society – Defending Australia’s WildCountry

A community-based environmental advocacy organisation, established in 1976, whose mission is protecting, promoting and restoring wilderness and natural processes across Australia. Works through the avenues of public education and empowerment, advocacy and negotiation, and desk and field research.


World-wide wildlife

Forest Conservation Portal

Provides forest conservation news and information retrieval tools. Its aims are to end deforestation, preserve primary and old-growth forests, conserve and sustainably manage other forests, and to commence the age of ecological restoration.

IUCN - the World Conservation Union

The IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is a membership organisation of States, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and scientists and experts from 181 countries. The world’s largest environmental knowledge network, it has databases, assessments, guidelines and case studies in conservation science; implements research in field projects around the world; and links both research and results to local, national, regional and global policy. One of its thematic work areas is the Protected Areas Program that produced, through the World Commission on Protected Areas, the Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. A brief description of the categories can be found on this website, but the  guidelines are to be found in full elsewhere on the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre website (see below)

The Living Landscapes - Conservation Without Borders

Living Landscapes is a program of the Wildlife Conservation Society that is dedicated to developing and disseminating wildlife-based strategies for conserving large, wild ecosystems that are integrated in wider landscapes of human influence. The program's approach explicitly places wildlife at the centre of conservation strategies, but recognizes that few places on earth remain free from human influence. Consequently, the program develops and tests wildlife-based conservation strategies in many locations across the world that take into account human impact.

MPA Global - a database of the world's Marine protected Areas

A world-wide database of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) that have some intertidal and/or subtidal component, based largely on information in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) Version 6.1. It is a collaboration between the Sea Around Us Project, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) and the World Conservation Union - World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). You can search the database for MPAs by Country, International Conventions and Programmes, or by the name of the Site. The database uses the IUCN Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories and has a field for No Take Zones (NTZ).

Protected Areas and World Heritage - Defining Protected Area Management Categories

The full IUCN Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories can be downloaded from here.

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

UNEP-WCMC is the biodiversity assessment and policy implementation arm of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The website provides information and maps for policy and action to conserve species, forests, protected areas, marine, mountains and freshwaters; plus habitats affected by climate change such as polar regions.

Wild Foundation

Formed in 1974, WILD is an international organization dedicated to wilderness protection around the world. WILD works through bringing the wilderness conservation community together to achieve practical conservation results through the World Wilderness Congresses and through the Wilderness Task Force of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. WILD’s policy work and research is conducted through the Wild Planet Project (WPP), an initiative launched by WILD at the 8th World Wilderness Congress (8th WWC) in 2005. WILD was one of the founders of the International Journal of Wilderness.

World Database on Protected Areas

Online database that allows you to search protected areas data by site name, country, and international programme or convention. Each country has a listing of the national and international protected area categories, and links through to information on the individual areas that includes the legal designation, name, IUCN Management Category, size in hectares, and location (latitude and longitude), the year of establishment and other historical and contextual information. There is also information on the definitions and categorisation of protected areas worldwide. Ask your self why there is no data for the UK.

Permaculture and related topics

Agroforestry Research Trust

Founded as charitable trust in 1992, with Martin Crawford as Director. Information about forest farming and gardening, silvo-pastural and silvo-arable systems, riparian and windbreak plantings, and tree and shrub choices. The Trust carries out a wide range of research trials and publishes a quarterly newsletter.

Chapter 7

Campaigns to provide access to land for all households through environmentally sound planning. A rural land planning organisation, seeking reform of planning guidance and advocating new forms of sustainable homes and livelihoods in the countryside.

Design for Revolution

A fusion of red and deep green activist thought, Chris Marsh's website gives us a very personal take on her commitment to bringing about change through Permaculture. The article My problem with 'Permies' and other postings are a welcome polemic on the progress of mainstreaming Permaculture.


The Dunbeag project is based in 30 acres of ancient oak woodland in Argyll. Mixed conifer underplantings from 1963 are being removed and the woodland is being allowed to regenerate naturally. The project has a forest garden, and is also developing an agro-forestry system that could be used as a model for a forest village community, a land use proposal that David Blair, project leader, is promoting. In recent years, timber from the woodland has been used for building a workshop, stables, a summerhouse and most recently a roundhouse.

Forest Harvest - Non-timber Forest Products in Scotland

Information about non-timber harvests from Scottish woodlands, provided by Reforesting Scotland (see below). Scottish woodlands provide a wide range of such products, including wild and managed game, edible and medicinal plants and mushrooms, foliage, seeds, bark, resins, dyes and craft materials. Species and Product lists, history of use of non-timber harvests, and management and gathering information. All linked in to descriptions and locations of Scottish woods.

Futures Edge

A must for futurists and students of time. Learn how to future-proof your Permaculture Designs by downloading the presentation given by webmaster Jamie at a northern Permaculture convergence in 2002.

Holmgren Design Services

David Holmgren is one of Australia's most experienced Permaculture site designers and is a co-originator of Permaculture. His website contains a wealth of information


The Austrian hillside farm of Sepp Holtzer that has become an exemplar of temperate Permaculture practice. Continental climate of hot, dry summer and cold, dry-ish winter that is not entirely translatable to UK conditions. Website in German.

Land and Liberty

A small independent publishing venture devoted to producing literature, artwork and information concerning issues such as land use, veganism, Permaculture and ecology. Some articles by site master Graham Burnett and an Introduction to Permaculture. Good links page.

Pattern Literacy – Toby Hemenway

Toby describes Permaculture as a pattern for whole systems ecological design. He wrote the breakthrough American book “Gaia’s Garden” – a homescale guide to Permaculture that takes an ecologically functional approach. His website advertises his workshops and courses, but also has his own view of the Permaculture Principles, excerpts from his book, and various articles on Permaculture. The reading list is extensive although primarily focussed on North America.

Permaculture Association

The Permaculture Association supports people and projects through training, networking and research, using the ethics and principles of permaculture

Permaculture design at Tir penrhos isaf

Information on a permaculture holding in Wales, worked since 1986 and lived on since February 1992. Temporary planning permission was granted from the Snowdonia National Park. Good information on regeneration of wild land on the holding.

Permanent Publications

Publisher of quarterly newsstand magazine, Permaculture Magazine. Some articles from back issues are posted on the website. They also publish specialist books on Permaculture, and provide a range of books on sustainable solutions to living, all available by mail order.

Plants for a Future

A website that is a resource centre (species database) for rare and unusual plants, particularly those that have edible, medicinal or other uses. Its links page on Permaculture is extensive and it documents with excellent photo's the gradual rewilding of the land on which PFAF are based.

Ragmans Lane Farm

Ragmans Lane is a 60 acre farm in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire. The farm is run on permaculture principles and is primarily about educating and employing people to work the land sustainably, giving them the opportunity to 'learn on the job', as well as producing wholesome food for local markets.

Rubha Phoil

The Permacultural development since 1991 of a landholding (with croft status) on the Sleat peninsula of Skye. The development plan lays out a silvicultural approach to returning soil fertility, along with kitchen and forest garden areas, woodland walk, tree nursery and eco-house.



I am hard pressed to recommend many websites on farming as few as yet encapsulate fully a design-led, integrated whole farm approach that exemplifies what I hope would be an ideal. Many encloak themselves with the mantle of sustainable agriculture or whole system approach. Be wary!

Agroforestry Research Trust

Founded as charitable trust in 1992, with Martin Crawford as Director. Information about forest farming and gardening, silvo-pastural and silvo-arable systems, riparian and windbreak plantings, and tree and shrub choices. The Trust carries out a wide range of research trials and publishes a quarterly newsletter.

ATTRA (Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas)

A sustainable agriculture information service managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology in America.

BioScene Project

A research project , co-ordinated from Imperial College, London, investigating the decline in agriculture in six mountainous areas of Europe and for the potential for subsequent land use change. The project takes a case study approach to the analysis of the biodiversity processes and outcomes of different scenarios of agri-environmental change in six countries covering the major biogeographical regions of Europe. The scenarios could include a Business As Usual Scenario, a Managed Decline Scenario, and a Biodiversity Enhancement Scenario.

Farm Woodland Forum (formerly UK Agroforestry Forum)

Membership forum supporting best practice and increasing opportunity for farming with trees. Annual meetings disseminate latest research, development and practice related to agroforestry and farming with trees.Newsletter, publications, and a web-based toolbox for silvo-pastural development and management.

Farming and Wildlife Advisory Group (FWAG)

FWAG provides farmers and landowners with practical advice on making adjustments to farm operations and enhancing farm features in order to support wildlife, landscape, archaeology, access and other conservation issues. FWAG advice is based on a whole farm approach in producing tailor-made conservation plans designed to suit the farm type and location.

Knepp Castle Estate

Charlie Burrell has broken the bounds of orthodoxy and decided that agriculture as the main purpose for the land of his estate was rapidly becoming too much of a liability. In 2001, he entered into an agreement with DEFRA under the Countryside Stewardship Scheme to restore the old listed park immediately around his historic house. "Financially it was no more attractive to us than the old farming system, but the psychological benefits proved enormous and took us quite by surprise". Since then, he has looked for more opportunities for environmental restoration, aided by the advent of the single farm payment subsidy that he can use for that, as it does not tie him to farm production. He says "An ecological alternative to farming began to seem a viable and extremely attractive way forward for Knepp". Charlie explains it all, with vivid photo's of his naturalistic grazers and the vastly improving wildlife.

Land Use Policy Group (LUPG)

The LUPG comprises the GB statutory conservation, countryside and environment agencies (CA, EN, EA, SNH, CCW, JNCC). It advises on policy matters related to agriculture, woodlands and other rural land uses. It seeks to improve understanding of policy mechanisms related to land use, particularly farming and forestry. The LUPG commissioned a range of research into land use policy, and reports can be downloaded on rural development, structural changes in agricultural policy, environmental standards in food production, and the future of forestry and new wildwoods.

LEAF (Linking Environment And Farming)

LEAF encourages farmers throughout the UK to adopt Integrated Farm Management (IFM) and to promote the benefits of IFM to consumers. The New LEAF Audit is a complete whole farm management tool that gives you a way of honestly appraising and improving your farming practices.

Northmoor Trust

The Northmoor Trust is based in South Oxfordshire and manages an estate of 300 hectares, including Little Wittenham Nature Reserve, a conservation farm and a new woodland dedicated to forestry research. The mixed farm is managed as an integrated farming system with the aims of wildlife and countryside conservation. It is an exemplar for LEAF (see above). Extensive website explaining their approach to farming, and habitat and woodland creation, plus their various research and education programs.

Wild Farm Alliance

Established by a group of wildlands proponents and ecological farming advocates in America, who share a concern for the land and its wild and human inhabitants. The mission is to promote agriculture that helps to protect and restore wild Nature. They envision community-based, ecologically managed farms and ranches seamlessly integrated into landscapes that accommodate the full range of native species and ecological processes. Aims, briefing papers, case studies, and extensive links.